Thursday, January 6, 2011


punctuation marks

Punctuation is the system of symbols (. , ! - : etc) that we use to separate sentences and parts of sentences, and to make their meaning clear. Each symbol is called a "punctuation mark".

The Value of Punctuation
An English teacher wrote these words on the board:
woman without her man is nothing

The teacher then asked the students to punctuate the words correctly. The men wrote the top line. The women wrote the bottom line.

The value of punctuation

Summary of Punctuation Marks

Click on the link for each punctuation mark to find out more.
Punctuation MarkNameExample
full stop or periodfull stop or periodI like English.
commacommaI speak English, French and Thai.
semi-colonsemi-colonI don't often go swimming; I prefer to play tennis.
coloncolonYou have two choices: finish the work today or lose the contract.
hyphenhyphenThis is a rather out-of-date book.
dashdashIn each town—London, Paris and Rome—we stayed in youth hostels.
question markquestion markWhere is Shangri-La?
exclamation markexclamation mark"Help!" she cried. "I'm drowning!"
slash or forward slashslash, forward slash or obliquePlease press your browser's Refresh/Reload button.
double quotation marksdouble quotation marks"I love you," she said.
single quotation markssingle quotation marks'I love you,' she said.
apostropheapostropheThis is John's car.
underlineunderlineHave you read War and Peace?
round bracketsround bracketsI went to Bagkok (my favourite city) and stayed there for two weeks.
square bracketssquare bracketsThe newspaper reported that the hostages [most of them French] had been released.
ellipsisellipsis markOne happy customer wrote: "This is the best program...that I have ever seen."

Teacher Ruby


A conjunction is a word that "joins". A conjunction joins two parts of a sentence.
Here are some example conjunctions:
Coordinating ConjunctionsSubordinating Conjunctions
and, but, or, nor, for, yet, soalthough, because, since, unless
We can consider conjunctions from three aspects.


Conjunctions have three basic forms:
  • Single Word
    for example: and, but, because, although
  • Compound (often ending with as or that)
    for example: provided that, as long as, in order that
  • Correlative (surrounding an adverb or adjective)
    for example: so...that


Conjunctions have two basic functions or "jobs":
  • Coordinating conjunctions are used to join two parts of a sentence that are grammatically equal. The two parts may be single words or clauses, for example:
    Jack and Jill went up the hill.
    The water was warm, but I didn't go swimming.
  • Subordinating conjunctions are used to join a subordinate dependent clause to a main clause, for example:
    I went swimming although it was cold.


  • Coordinating conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that they join.
  • Subordinating conjunctions usually come at the beginning of the subordinate clause.

Teacher Ruby

The Present Continuous Tense

  1. We use the Present Continuous Tense to talk about activities happening now.
       The kids are watching TV.
       I am sitting down, because I am tired.
       I am not learning German, because this is an English class.
       Who are you writing to?

  2. We can also use the Present Continuous Tense to talk about activities happening around now, and not necessarily this very moment.
       Sally is studying really hard for her exams this week.
       I am reading a really interesting book now.
       How are you brushing up on your English for the trip?
       We aren't working hard these days.

  3. The Present Continuous Tense is also used to talk about activities happening in the near future, especially for planned future events.
       I am seeing my dentist on Wednesday.
       Polly is coming for dinner tomorrow.
       Are you doing anything tonight?
       We aren't going on holiday next week.

    Teacher Ruby :)